Acid Chlorides

Acid Chlorides

Naming

The naming of acid chlorides is done by changing the suffix representing the acid from –oic to     –oyl and adding chloride at the end.

acid chloride 1

Preparation

PCl5

acid chloride 2

SOCl2

acid chloride 3

Reactions

Hydrolysis

Acid chlorides are highly reactive and these will immediately hydrolyse in the presence of water.

acid chloride 4

Acid chlorides are the most reactive acid derivatives, and therefore these can be used to prepare all of the other acid derivatives. In all of the reaction HCl is produced, and therefore pyridine can be used as a solvent. Pyridine is a base which can react with pyridine and removes it from solution.

Esters

acid chloride 5

Acid anhydrides

acid chloride 6

Amides

acid chloride 7

Reduction

Acid chlorides can be reduced to either the alcohol or the aldehyde, depending on the conditions used. LiAlH4 gives off the alcohol while a mixture of Pd and BaSO4 gives rise to the aldehyde.

Aldehyde

acid chloride 8

Alcohol

acid chloride 9

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