Hydrogen is prepared by the electrolysis of brine. It is prepared at the cathode.
CH4 + H2O(g) → CO + 3H2 (Ni catalyst 700oC)
CO + H2O(g) → CO2 + H2 (Fe catalyst 400oC)
K2CO3 + H2O + CO2 → 2KHCO3 (to remove CO2 from the mixture)
Acids + metals
An acid + a metal above Hydrogen in the E.C.S. will produce hydrogen as a product.
Ionic hydrides + water
Ionic hydrides react with water to liberate hydrogen.
Hydrogen is used to saturate organic molecules such as alkenes. This is done by the aid of Nickel catalyst and a temperature of 140oC.
Reactive metals and non-metals react with hydrogen to produce hydrides, such as NaH, KH, MgH2, H2O, H2S and HCl
Ammonia is prepared via the Haber process using iron as a catalyst, high pressures and a temperature of around 400oC.
A simple hydride is when a metal reacts with hydrogen to produce a simple ionic hydride, such as NaH.
A complex hydride is when the hydride reacts with an electron deficient atom, such as Aluminium to form a negatively charged ion. These are normally very reactive.
4LiH + AlCl3 → LiAlH4 + 3LiCl3
These are the products of the reaction between a non-metal and hydrogen.
Hydrogen is a very small molecule, and therefore these can fit in small places, such as transition metal lattices.
There are 3 types of isotopes for hydrogen;
All of these isotopes react in the same way, and therefore any reaction with D2O would be as if one is reacting with H2O.